The official name of Russia is the Russian Federation. The country is located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia is the largest country in the world. Its area is 17075400 km2 (11.46% of the Earth's land area). Russia shares borders with 18 countries. It has land borders with such countries as Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. There are maritime borders with Japan and the United States.

In Russia there are more than 120 thousand rivers and about 2 million lakes. The largest rivers are the Volga, Lena, Amur, Irtysh, Ob, Yenisei and Kama.

The largest lakes of Russia are Baikal, Ladoga, Onega as well as Caspian Sea. Most of the European territory occupies the East-European plain. Northern slopes of the Caucasus are stretched in the South. The highest point is Mount Elbrus, 5642 m of height. In the Northwest of the country the Khibiny mountains are located. The vast West Siberian Plain stretches to the East of the Urals. In the South-East of the plain bordered with mountains of Altai. The highest point is Mount Belukha, whose height is 4506 m.

Between the Yenisei and Lena a massive Middle-Siberian plateau is laid, which consists of ancient rocks. On the South it adjoined the ridges of Western and Eastern Sayan.

Between Lena and the Pacific Ocean a large number of mountain ranges and plateaus of East Mountain Sihote-Alin, the Dzhugdzhur mountains, Highlands and Vorkuta etc. are located.

Along the Pacific coast of the Russian Far East are mountains of the Kamchatka peninsula and the Kuril Islands with active volcanoes. The highest point is the Klyuchevskaya Sopka (4750 m.). 

More than 60% of the Russian territory occupied by permafrost.

The capital of Russia is Moscow.

 

Language: Russian.

Population: 142.7 million man.

Phone code: +7

National domain: RU

 

How to get to Russia

In Moscow, the Russian capital, operates the following airports of international importance: Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo and Vnukovo.

In St. Petersburg there is airport Pulkovo-1.

You can fly to Moscow and St. Petersburg from most major airports in the world.

Airlines: Aeroflot, Transaero, Utair, S7.

 

Climate

The climate on the whole territory of Russia characterized by strong division of the year into the cold and warm seasons. In the North and East annual amplitude of temperatures and lower winter temperatures are increasing. Most of the country lies in the temperate zone, the islands of the Arctic Ocean and the Northern continental areas ― in the Arctic and subarctic zones, and the Black Sea coast of Caucasus and the southern coast of Crimea are located in the subtropical zone. Within each zone there has been a significant climate change, directed from West to East (climatic region) and North to South (zone climate types). 

Eastward to approximately 140-th meridian winter temperatures fall, as well as decreasing cloudiness, rainfall, cyclones and the duration of frost-free period, longer winters. For example, there are four types of climate in the temperate zone: temperate continental (in European Russia), continental (Western Siberia), sharp continental (large part of Eastern Siberia, the Far East) and the monsoon (Southeast of the Far East).  The coldest region is North of the Far East, where the city Oymyakon is the "pole of cold in the northern hemisphere” and the average temperature in January falls below-46°C. A large part of the territory of Russia is located in the temperate zone, lower ― in the Arctic climatic zone, still less ― in the subarctic climate zone, still less in subtropical climatic zone.  In the Far East the average temperature in January is 46.4°C in Ojmjakon and to 10.5°C in Nakhodka (12.3°C in Vladivostok).  The average annual temperature in the area varies from + 14.2°C and 15.5°C degrees in Ojmjakon.  The absolute minimum temperature in the Far East is between 67.8°C in Verhojansk to 27.2°C in Nakhodka, in the European part of Russia ― from 58.1°C in Ust-Schugore-13.4°C in Sochi. Overall for the year the length of the day varies from 15 h 15 min in Derbent and 15 h 0 min 21 minutes at June 22, in Nakhodka in the far south of Russia up to 124 days, April 22 to August 23 at Cape Chelyuskin.  Least year length of the day varies from 09 h 07 min in Derbent and 09 h 02 min in the Nakhodka of December 22, in the far south of Russia, to 109 days, from October 29 to February 14, at Cape Chelyuskin. From February 15 to April 21 and from August 28 to October 24 on the entire mainland of Russia is the alternation of night and day. On June 22 in Russia day lasts at least 15 h 09 min and on December 22 the day lasts no more than 9 h 13 min. The average length of the day in Russia changes from 12 h 11 min at the most southern point of Russia (for Moscow it is 12 h 17 min) to 13 h 30 min at the latitude of the Arctic Circle. In winter almost all of Russia (as a rule) has stable snow cover.  Exceptions are the Southern Black Sea coast.    Summer in the country is very different: in the southern regions it is the hot weather, while in the North, only coming off snow and frost disappear. On the Black Sea coast in the winter the average temperature is always positive, some days the temperature can rise above +20°C, and in the East of the Republic of Sakha in the sub-arctic climate zone, in Chokurdah, more than half of the year from mid-October to mid-April thaw are excluded. In Ojmjakon from December to February there are frosts below 60°C, and a temperature rise of up to –30°C in some winter days close to daily maximum temperature record. At 93.1% of the area of Russia the average temperature of the coldest month of the year is below –10°C, and at 82% of the territory of Russia the average temperature of the coldest month of the year below –15°C.  39% of the area of Russia is located in the boreal forest, 13% is the Arctic desert, tundra and forest tundra, 6% lays in the zone of mixed forests, 8% ― in the zone of forest and deciduous forests, 5% ― in the zone of the steppes, 1% ― in the area of semi-desert, 1% ― in the area of deserts. A substantial part of the country is characterized by permafrost. 

 

Currency

Russian rouble.

Exchange rate in banks and exchange offices differs slightly. Exchange offices are located throughout Moscow and other large cities. Credit card (Visa and MasterCard) you can pay at hotels, restaurants and shops. ATMs are available in all cities of Russia.

 

Cuisine

Russian cookery is the traditional for the Russian people. Her dishes and flavour accents vary depending on geographical location. Russian cookery has absorbed elements of ancient Slavic one as well as dishes of different peoples living in Russia. Traditional lunch in Russia consists of three dishes. First is meat soup with vegetables and cereals (a Borsch, solanka or cabbage soup), the second is fish or meat and a side dish (rice, buckwheat, potatoes, pasta, braised cabbage), third is drink: compote, juice, jelly or juice. As a snack most often are pancakes with caviar, "herring under a fur coat", pickles, sauerkraut, marinated vegetables, salad of tomatoes and cucumbers with sour cream. Also on the table are pies with cabbage, minced meat or potatoes. Bread always stands at the head of the table during the meal. In the old days each meal had a certain hour. Especially strictly respected both lunch and dinner. The whole family gathered around the table, where all was in place. At the head of the table sat the owner of the house, he first sat down at the table, followed by all other members of the household. Before each dinner partner  spoon and bread have been putted. Liquid hot meals are usually served in a large bowl for the whole family. The owner of the house watched that everyone was eating, not overtaking the other. Hard boiled, baked, fried foods and meals (meat, fish, etc.) were cut in pieces on a large platter. The pieces were hands (before the advent of the forks). Instead of plates used large chunks of bread. Guests put on them solid food, meat, fish, etc. as on the plate. After dinner the bread plates usually eaten. Rules of behaviour at the table were rather restrictive: you cannot knock or scrape the bowl with a spoon, throwing bits of food on the floor, talk loudly and laugh. Before you sit down, everyone mark oneself with a sign of the cross. All this highlights once again the respect and even reverence that Russians have experienced in relation to bread pressing. Russians have always featured the exclusive hospitality. Even in ancient times table in the hut was covered by a white cloth, which put the bread and salt. This meant that the house always welcome guest.

 

планшетыуслуги по продвижениюЛобановский